Cape verde dating – register now for free, cape verde dating site

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Cape Verde Dating – Register Now for FREE, cape verde dating site.

One of the largest online dating apps for Cape Verde singles on Facebook with over 25 million connected singles, FirstMet makes it fun and easy for mature adults in Cape Verde to meet people. Meet other single adults in Cape Verde like you – whether you are a single parent, divorced, separated, or have never been married.

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Meeting singles from Cape Verde has never been easier. Welcome to the simplest online dating site to date, flirt, or just chat with Cape Verde singles. It’s free to register, view photos, and send messages to single men and women in Cape Verde!

One of the largest online dating apps for Cape Verde singles on Facebook with over 25 million connected singles, FirstMet makes it fun and easy for mature adults in Cape Verde to meet people. Meet other single adults in Cape Verde like you – whether you are a single parent, divorced, separated, or have never been married.

Whether you’re from Cape Verde, traveling, or just looking to meet people from Cape Verde online, you can use our filters and advanced search to find single women and men who match your interests. And you can use our iPhone, Android, and Facebook dating apps to meet Cape Verde singles on the go!

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Asian dating, review, asian dating opinion

Category: 25 year old dating 21 year old - Caronreviews.site
Asian Dating, Review, asian dating opinion.

Free membership, however, only allows contact with paying members, but once you become one you can contact all members, paying or not, which really puts the power into your hands. The experience is organized so that the service improves the more money you spend.

We have awarded Asian Dating our prestigious Gold Award in this category, having reviewed 23 Asian Dating Websites. Read our review below to find out why.

Editor’s Star Ratings:

AsianDating.com is powered by Cupid Media, which operates a number of database-driven dating sites focused on the interracial niche markets. AsianDating.com allows singles across Asia and Europe to connect by way of a fun and safe environment. They offer a multi-lingual interface with a user-friendly design, easy navigation and range of interactive features to provide you with a fun and safe online dating experience – connecting you with a large database of singles.

AsianDating.com offers a tiered level of service, starting with your basic free membership. As a free member you can send and receive e-mail from other members, so it is possible to use the site without paying a subscription fee. However, two free members will not be able to chat, and if you want to get involved in instant messaging then you’ll need to upgrade your memebership.

If you decide to become a paying member, the higher your subscription, the better your chance of being noticed according to the way profiles are ranked (as a free member you come lower down the list). There is an icebreaker or “send an interest” feature, which works quite well at dipping your toe into the dating pool before diving in.

Free membership, however, only allows contact with paying members, but once you become one you can contact all members, paying or not, which really puts the power into your hands. The experience is organized so that the service improves the more money you spend.

Platinum members have access to all the bells and whistles in the form of video profiles, video mail, and a message translation service.

Platinum members have access to all the bells and whistles in the form of video profiles, video mail, and a message translation service. Moreover, the more you spend, the more space you have on your profile to appeal to other members, and you can also include contact details to communicate outside of the site.

There is a good profile management facility allowing you to change the written content, photos, e-mail alert settings, match preferences, cancellation and reactivation. Because of the carefully tiered membership system, free members are constantly adding to the database and keep the site busy and active. There are now over 2 million members, which gives you plenty of choice.

Other sites often don’t keep their free members because they cannot read or send e-mails until they upgrade to a paid subscription. AsianDating.com, on the other hand, caters for all budgets by offering an excellent introductory (Standard) package to entice free members. Unlike some other sites, AsianDating.com allows free (Standard) members to try out many features before deciding whether to upgrade to a paid (Gold or Platinum) subscription.

Unlike some Asian dating sites, the level of English is to a high professional standard, so things are laid out clearly and simply. The translation service is an impressive and its popularity speaks for itself.

Unlike some other sites, AsianDating.com allows free (Standard) members to try out many features before deciding whether to upgrade to a paid (Gold or Platinum) subscription.

The profiles themselves are comprehensive and include a wide range of basic and more advanced information, allowing you to talk about yourself if you choose. This is all helpful when it comes to performing searches because it means you can be pretty specific about the sorts of personality and physical traits you’re interested in, helping you to find exactly who you’re looking for.

Meanwhile, chatting is fun and can be achieved via email message, instant messenger or video. This last option is particularly fun if you want to get up close and personal as it allows you to see and hear the other person.

The help files cover queries on logging in, profile and match management, photo management, e-mail, the “interest” function, languages, chat room, instant messaging, searching and browsing, membership options and cost, technical issues, and safety/security. Whilst pricing information used to be locked away it is now readily available simply by clicking “upgrade now”, and you can find out which features will open up to you depending on the package you take out.

The help files are comprehensive and thorough, complete with FAQs, and if need be you can contact CupidMedia directly by telephone at their Australian headquarters in Queensland.

With several pricing options available and a very generous free membership option, we feel that you have the time and features to explore the site much more fully than you’ll find with other sites. Membership numbers are high and you’ll even be able to talk to non-paying users. There are plenty of features to keep you busy, too.

Over all, we felt that Asian Dating is an affordable site which offers more than most sites, providing a safe and fun place to meet potential dates from across the globe.

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Dating but no relationship, dating but no marriage

Category: 25 year old dating 21 year old - Caronreviews.site
Dating but no relationship, dating but no marriage.

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Riot deconfirms ezreal x lux leagueoflegends – lux and ez real dating games, lux ezreal dating

Category: 25 year old dating 21 year old - Caronreviews.site
Riot deconfirms Ezreal x Lux: leagueoflegends – Lux and ez real dating games, lux ezreal dating.

And the reason why it works on you in specific is due to your magic. In the world that you are about to venture to, about a day.

Ezreal || Riot Games || An Explorer’s Journey (½) . AUs: (they’re closer and more open about their relationship in the Casual AU since they’re already dating here). If Kayn and Zoe are the type to watch Buzzfeed Unsolved, Lux and Ezreal are. League of Legends (video game) · Homosexuality As far as I know, Ezreal has never officially had anything to do with Lux in terms of relationships. They’re. Creepy? Yeah guys, showing affection for someone today is clearly creepy. Can’t buy your girlfriend flowers because that would be desperate.

You see, first of all the person must be female, and even I do not understand why that is but my calculations never failed me before so I will follow it.

And the reason why it works on you in specific is due to your magic. In the world that you are about to venture to, about a day.

Because you have an audience who want to see the results. I mean I understand how it can be used for good, but if the wrong people got their hands on it…” “That is also a reason why we need you to go through with this to ensure the safety of the people of the future.

Oh, and I have a question for you Lux. Now Lux, I will need you to drink this and then the dream potion. You can drink it. Lux drank the content and stuck her tongue out at the taste. Ezreal gave her the dream potion. After drinking it, Lux sat there in a daze. They turned to see Lux sleeping on the floor. It has way too many flaws.

Telling me that I need to find a way to help them get their one true love? Such as there are parallel worlds where the future is always different, no one can truly control it. And only Lux can use it? More information can be found on the Groups and Skin Themes pagebut some notable ones: The champions live as students, teachers, and professors in high-school.

Taken further with the Riot-endorsed series of Academy Adventures fan comics, which shows exactly what happens when you have a school filled with super powerful beings who have much of their original personalities. The champions are video game characters Battlecast or “The Evolution”: Viktor has realized his Glorious Evolution.

In turn, he’s created a number of machine monstrosities, based on several void champions, Xerath, and Skarner. The champions are part of a Cyber Punk future, and turned into cyborgs meant for battle, and forced to often undergo torturous memory wipes to suppress their humanity and memories of their former lives.

Master Yi in particular has suffered from this, but has flashes of his original memories. However, a resistance faction led by Ashe have broken away to avoid having their memories of their human selves taken away, and fight to free other PROJECT members from being used as mere weapons. Future setting where champions have access to time travel and other alternate universes.

Ezereal has become a “time explorer”, but is actually considered a criminal because of his habit of taking artifacts from their correct timelines, causing the butterfly effect.

He is now chased after by this universe’s Caitlyn as she tries to stop him and others who negatively effect the various time streams from their rightful course. Champions living in a modern day world, school students by day, and Magical Girl Warriors by night.

Defictionalized with Riot’s in-house band Pentakill releasing an actual album, with songs named after various items, gameplay features, and lore pieces. Seemingly invoked by The Void and the Shadow Isles but subverted when you read up on their characters and lore.

It’s certainly the case for a majority of champions in those factions, but not all of them. American Kirby Is Hardcore: Invoked with the Japanese voice actor reveal trailer of the Japanese dub cast of the game. Because of pop culture differences between Japan and the west, cuter champions i.

Darius, Draven, Graves, Rengar and gritty action girls Katarina, Morgana, Sivir, Shyvana are highlighted in many western trailers for this game. Many champions have kits which don’t really kick into gear until they reach a “core build”, a fundamental combination of items that matches their stats and abilities.

This creates a “power spike” when they reach that item which often allows their team to seize an advantage by leveraging their new power.

An Adventurer Is You: In lateRiot made an update to their champion classification to more accurately express their role in a team, expanding for specificity’s sake in You can check out those classifications on the character page.

An Axe to Grind: Many champions look to the trusty axe as their Weapon of Choice. There’s something for every kind of player here.

So much, we’d spend all day trying to list which elements from champions to items clash with which. A few champion designs fand some champion splash arts have a noticeable Eastern influence — one big difference between this game and its nearest rival game Dota2 is that Dota 2 looks more like a Western RPG, whereas League looks more like a JRPG.

At the start of the game, when minions are spawned, whenever someone goes down, destruction of important buildings, and killing sprees.

It helps that she sounds like she could be the Administrator’s older, kinder sister, even if she does revel in bloodshed. A number of the more technical or esoteric aspects from the original Defense of the Ancients: All-Stars are gone, including, but are not limited to: The “Town Portal Scroll” was decomposed into a universal “recall” ability that can be used at any time to return to base, and the “Teleport” summoner spell functions like a free but long-cooldown TP Scroll.

Creep denial — in which you kill your own Minions which doesn’t give you gold and experience but denies your enemy from doing the same — is completely removed. Death no longer causes you to lose gold, and tower kills distribute gold to the entire team rather than just the player who last-hit it, reducing the likelihood of Unstable Equilibrium.

Aside from critical strike chance, almost all stat-based RNG mechanics have been completely phased out, and mechanics that do have a randomness element tend to be much more interactive beyond simple stats.

When a player disconnects, his or her champion will simply walk back to base rather than stand still and wait for something to come kill them. You’re still stuck with a lower max number of players, but it can prevent a cheap death by standing idle in front of an enemy turret.

DOTA 2 took notice of this and upped the ante by having an AI-controlled bot take control of the disconnected player. The First Win of the Day bonus resets every 20 hours rather than the normally-expected 24 hours, giving you much more leeway in getting the bonus every day without having to worry about schedule slipping.

The in-game shop has an undo button to fully refund purchases within a limited window of time. This handily eliminates the age-old dilemma of buying the wrong item and having to choose between being stuck with the wrong item or losing valuable gold selling it back for less. Season 4 introduced a new item system allowing people to pick up a free trinket to either gain free wards, scout out an area of the map from far away, or disable stealth.

This combined with the 3-per-person limit on wards alleviated the all-too-common problem of the support player being the only one on the map placing any wards at all of course players can still neglect to use their trinket but at least one player isn’t expected to shoulder the burden anymore.

Similarly, Season 4’s attempts to improve the game play for support characters involved adding three new, upgradable, starter items which increased gold income. Only one of the three starter items may be purchased, and each items effects were carefully designed to ensure that they would only be a useful source of gold to support characters mostly by making the effects stop working temporarily if a character actively kills a minion, the usual method of gold income.

While supports will never make as much gold as other characters, these items give them a steady gold stream, this partially addresses a standard complaint that support were less fun because the inability to buy upgrades made them less dynamic and less useful during the final team battles. You can choose your attack-move behavior to either target the enemy closest to where you clicked or the first enemy that steps into your attack range.

You can also have Smart Cast show your skill’s targeting reticle. Pressing the key will display the reticle, and releasing it will cast the skill.

Ezreal and Lux (Champion relationships) | League Of Legends Official Amino

As of pre-season 6, player vision wards now automatically upgrade, since players often forget anyway. Also, all players receive the “Homeguard” enchantment at 20 minutes, rather than having to buy it. Any champion with an ability that Silences enemies incapable of using abilities, cancels currently channeling ones, etc. No crowd control lasts for more than a couple of seconds, but casters are rendered nearly helpless for the duration, making it feel very long indeed.

Naturally, the few specialized Mage Killer champions have this in their arsenal plus other abilities to capitalize on this vulnerable period. The League is host to several of pairs of champions who would love to see each other dead. See the various character pages for details. Can reach this state at times, depending on the balance of the game. During those times, Tanks and Fighters typically fall out of of favor, and Controllers and Slayers Often with strange item builds typically end up taking their place.

There’s also true damage, which cannot be mitigated by Armor or Magic Resist, and can only be combated through having more health. As time passes, older champions from League’s beginning tend to become outdated.

Riot has then taken the task of performing “Visual Updates”, which bring a character’s art, model, effects, sounds, and voice up to par with a brand new champion.

Some champions age better than others, though, and some of the older ones that don’t need too much work settle for a simple texture update. Before the great retconning, the League of Legends itself descended into this. It’s one of the primary reasons why Riot went through with the retcon. Double Subvertedin that while the in-universe organization of the League of Legends has been retconned, it could be considered that the game itself is a league of actual legends, with many characters since the retcon either being ethereal beings who couldn’t possibly be restrained if the League had still existed such as Bard or Kindred, or Folk Heroes given flesh for combat such as Kled or Braum.

Charles IVthe 14th-century Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg [22] Historic map undated of Luxembourg city’s fortifications Photograph of the fortress of Luxembourg prior to demolition in Main article: County of Luxemburg The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc [23] today Luxembourg Castle situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennesin through an exchange act with St.

Inthe House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy. Nineteenth century[ edit ] After the defeat of Napoleon inLuxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. The Dutch king became, in personal unionthe grand duke.

Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it similarly to a Dutch province. View of the Grund along Alzette river in the historical heart of Luxembourg City.

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Lux ezreal datingRiot deconfirms Ezreal x Lux: leagueoflegends – Lux and ez real dating games, lux ezreal dating.


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Dating british women pros and cons, american dating a british girl

Category: 25 year old dating 21 year old - Caronreviews.site
Dating British Women: Pros and Cons, american dating a british girl.

  • British girls are genuine. Unlike American women who may be louder, British girls are generally very quiet. They talk carefully. So when your British lady says, “I love you”, she really means it. Because British women talk less, what they say actually matters more.
  • British ladies are wellmannered. They are polite women. Their second nature is to treat people with respect. Therefore, even if you have an argument with your British girlfriend, she isn’t likely to make a scene. Instead, she will try her best to avo >British girls are humorous. They are fun and they know how to have a fun time. Most British girls grow up with comedy shows (e.g. Mr. Bean), so they understand the importance of not taking themselves too seriously. That makes a relationship with your British girlfriend is less stressful and more rewarding.
  • British women are worldly. Although the United Kingdom is not a country full of immigrants, this country is still a multicultural place – If you go to London, you will see people from all different ethnic groups everywhere. Therefore, you will meet open-minded, knowledgeable and worldly women in the UK.
  • British women have good taste in music. The UK has produced legends such as Adele, Coldplay, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Gareth Gates and Will Young. So your British girlfriend will show you where you can get the best CDs.
  • British girls are curious about foreign men. Like I mentioned earlier, British girls live in a multi-cultural country, so they are interested in learning more about foreign cultures. If you speak with a foreign accent, that’s huge turn-on.

By Jade Seashell (contributor), author of “A Seductress’ Confession: How to leverage beauty and savor tantalizing pleasure”

Thinking about dating a British woman? Falling in love with a British woman? I’ve done all the research for you, so you’ll see the pros and cons of dating British women now.

  • You’ll love the British accent. The British accent is cons >British women are gorgeous and classy. Think about Kate Beckinsale, Kate Moss, Kate Winslet, Keira Knightley and Victoria Beckham. Yes, British women are bombshells. You’ll be surprised how many beautiful women you’ll see in the United Kingdom. Yes, “English rose” is the right term to describe their beauty. They blossom quietly, elegantly and radiantly.

  • British girls are genuine. Unlike American women who may be louder, British girls are generally very quiet. They talk carefully. So when your British lady says, “I love you”, she really means it. Because British women talk less, what they say actually matters more.
  • British ladies are wellmannered. They are polite women. Their second nature is to treat people with respect. Therefore, even if you have an argument with your British girlfriend, she isn’t likely to make a scene. Instead, she will try her best to avo >British girls are humorous. They are fun and they know how to have a fun time. Most British girls grow up with comedy shows (e.g. Mr. Bean), so they understand the importance of not taking themselves too seriously. That makes a relationship with your British girlfriend is less stressful and more rewarding.
  • British women are worldly. Although the United Kingdom is not a country full of immigrants, this country is still a multicultural place – If you go to London, you will see people from all different ethnic groups everywhere. Therefore, you will meet open-minded, knowledgeable and worldly women in the UK.
  • British women have good taste in music. The UK has produced legends such as Adele, Coldplay, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Gareth Gates and Will Young. So your British girlfriend will show you where you can get the best CDs.
  • British girls are curious about foreign men. Like I mentioned earlier, British girls live in a multi-cultural country, so they are interested in learning more about foreign cultures. If you speak with a foreign accent, that’s huge turn-on.
  • British women understand etiquette. They are ladylike – they have good table etiquette; they know how to talk to anyone on any occasion. Yes, they still have royalty in the 21 st So they know how to behave in front of the Queen or your mom.
  • British beauties are stylish. They are fashion-conscious women. The UK has some of the world’s most well-known fashion designers such as Vivienne Westwood and Alexander McQueen. When you walk down the street in London, you’ll see fashionable women everywhere. Oh, you may even meet Naomi Campbell or Kate M >

    Thinking about dating a British woman? I’ve done all the research for you, so you’ll see the pros and cons of dating British women now.

    • British girls don’t reveal their feelings easily, so sometimes you don’t know what’s going on. It usually takes a long time for your British girlfriend to wear her heart on her sleeves, so you need to be careful. If you aren’t careful, the break-up can be messy.
    • Many British women don’t eat healthy food. Can you even think of one famous British dish that is wholesome? Probably not. Fish and chips are certainly not healthy at all. Most British women that I know like ice cream, chocolate, cakes and … fish and chips. So this kind of lifestyle isn’t >Sometimes British accent is too hard to understand. Yes, England is the hometown of the English language, but according to a survey, British accent is the hardest of all in terms of listening comprehension among all standard English accents: American accent is easy to understand because Americans talk slowly; Canadian accent is also easy to understand because Canadian accent is similar to American accent; Australian accent is also not too bad because mainstream Australians speak clearly. However, British people tend to talk really fast and there are many slang words and expressions that others don’t understand. Oh, if she is from Scotland, then you’ll need much more time to figure out what she is talking about.

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Dwyane wade and gabrielle union – s odd marriage, gabrielle union dating dwayne wade

Category: 25 year old dating 21 year old - Caronreviews.site
Dwyane Wade and Gabrielle Union – s odd marriage, gabrielle union dating dwayne wade.

Professional basketball player Dwyane Wade got down on one knee and proposed to his then-girlfriend, actress Gabrielle Union, in December 2013. That engagement was a long time coming, considering the couple had been dating since 2009, and Union had become a loving and supportive fixture in Wade’s children’s lives, as well. Perhaps their snail-paced journey to the altar had a lot to do with the nontraditional start to their union.

Strange things about Dwyane Wade and Gabrielle Union’s marriage

Professional basketball player Dwyane Wade got down on one knee and proposed to his then-girlfriend, actress Gabrielle Union, in December 2013. That engagement was a long time coming, considering the couple had been dating since 2009, and Union had become a loving and supportive fixture in Wade’s children’s lives, as well. Perhaps their snail-paced journey to the altar had a lot to do with the nontraditional start to their union.

For one, Wade was married to his high school sweetheart when he and the Bring It On star began their romance, and in the years leading up to the duo saying “I do,” he would go through a lengthy divorce and custody battle with his ex-wife and conceive a baby with another woman. Sounds pretty messy already, doesn’t it? Well, just wait. It gets even weirder. Here are all the strange things about Dwyane Wade and Gabrielle Union’s marriage.

His creds looked like ‘crap,’ but she gave him a shot anyway

Prior to meeting Dwyane Wade, Gabrielle Union had more than a few unsuccessful relationships with other athletes. There was former NBA star Jason Kidd who dumped her “two weeks before the junior prom,” she told the Bay State Banner. And then, there was former professional football player Chris Howard, who Union wed in 2001. After he reportedly cheated on her throughout their marriage, the couple decided to call it quits, Today reported. Striking out in the sports world meant Union wasn’t keen on dating another athlete ever again, especially not someone who arrived with a ton of baggage.

“When I met Dwyane, his ‘résumé’ looked like crap: athlete, going through a divorce, nine years younger than me. None of that screamed, ‘Let’s have a lasting relationship,’ she told Glamour magazine. Union finally had a change of heart after “a heart-crushing breakup with yet another immature jerk.” She added, “I thought, it can’t be any worse if I date a fetus. Let’s just see what happens.” Okay, their age difference makes us a bit uncomfy, but did she sorta kinda call Wade a fetus? Talk about a low-blow.

Dwyane Wade’s life was in complete disarray when he began dating Gabrielle Union in 2009. Not only was he still legally married to his then-wife and high school sweetheart, Siohvaughn Funches (pictured, right), but the two were embroiled in a nasty divorce and custody battle.

TMZ reported that Funches accused Wade of infecting her with chlamydia during their marriage. She later withdrew her claim, reported The Associated Press (via the Sun-Sentinel), but Wade moved forward with a $50,000 lawsuit against her for causing him “embarrassment” and “humiliation.” Things quickly spiraled. Wade filed for sole custody of their two sons, Zaire Wade and Zion Wade (pictured, right), which he was later granted. Funches was arrested for allegedly kidnapping their sons. At one point, she accused him of being a drunk and a druggie, and he accused her of throwing a marble object at him during one of their heated arguments, ESPN reported. What a mess!

Not surprisingly, Union had doubts about continuing her relationship with the professional baller, but she eventually decided it was worth it after she “did a lot of talking with girlfriends and sorting through my feelings about the madness,” she told Jet (via Us Weekly). Wade’s divorce from Funches was finalized in 2010. But still, holy moly. Oodles of dramz!

Did you think Gabrielle Union made it through the aforementioned divorce debacle without taking a few punches? Think again. She was dragged through the dirt and into the legal melee, too. Siohvaughn Funches claimed in a lawsuit that the actress and Dwyane Wade “engaged in sexual foreplay” in front of their two sons, which reportedly led to the eldest son developing anxiety, reported E! News. A judge later tossed that case, but in the midst of all the messiness, critics labeled Union a homewrecker.

Union has denied doing anything wrong, telling Jet magazine (via Us Weekly) that the love she shares with Dwyane Wade is “a gift.” She added, “It’s so consistent. There’s no way that I would trade it for people who refuse to simply acknowledge the truth.”

Dwyane Wade and Gabrielle Union’s December 2013 engagement coincided with another jaw-dropping announcement. The couple had briefly parted ways earlier that same year, and during their break, Wade fathering a baby boy with another woman. He revealed the baby news during a press conference (via E! News).

The child’s mother, Aja Metoyer (pictured, right), told Bossip in May 2017 (without directly mentioning Wade or Union by name,) that she and the basketball star had known each other for “10 years plus.” She added, “It seems messy but if you compare it to any other situation, it’s no beef. Everybody’s good. Everyone’s extremely happy.” Um, yeah, we’re not sure we’re buying that.

TMZ dig some digging and reported that all was not so black and white within this triangle. The tab claimed Wade and Union were not on a break when he impregnated Metoyer, though Union and Wade have insisted there was no cheating. TMZ noted that Union’s social media activity in February 2013 — around the time the baby was conceived — didn’t hint at a breakup. In fact, the actress had reportedly posted a series of romantic photos of Wade on her Instagram account during that time. However, in April 2013, Union began posting sad, cryptic messages. Her mood picked back up in May when she began to gush over Wade once again. “One would assume it was right around this time that Union decided to take him back,” TMZ wrote. Messy indeed.

While fans were still reeling over the news that Dwyane Wade had fathered a child with someone other than Gabrielle Union, the couple moved forward with planning their fairy-tale wedding. When Union spoke with Us Weekly in June 2014, she admitted that Wade had taken control of all of the logistics. “He realized that I was trying to turn it into a frat party with k-cups and beer pong, and he took over,” she said. “He really Kanye’d himself and really doubled down, and it’s his princess day and I’m just along for the ride.”

Since it was Union’s second wedding, we can somewhat understand why she may have felt so laid-back about it, but we think Wade made the right decision to grab the bull by the horns. Their beautiful August 2014 wedding at the Chateau Artisan in Miami was one for the books…sans kegger. Nice call, Princess D-Wade.

If you’re at a Miami Heat basketball game and you hear someone going absolutely ballistic and heckling like there’s no tomorrow, Gabrielle Union is most likely the culprit.

As of this writing, Wade has won three championships with the Heat,so he obviously knows a thing or two about the game of basketball. Still, that hasn’t stopped Union from chiming in from the peanut gallery. She has even mocked his poor performances in interviews. “Last night he took an incredibly bad shot,” she told Ocean Drive magazine in 2016. “It went off of the side of the backboard. It didn’t even come close to the net!” Her criticism reportedly got so bad that Wade even banned her from sitting courtside at his games. “I’m like dance mom. I’ve become like Bobby Knight and like The Great Santini, it’s bad. [I scream] like ‘brick!’ and ‘air ball!'” Union told Conan O’Brien.

As weird as it may seem that she unloads such harsh criticism instead of sugarcoating her words, Union has a solid reason why she’s so tough on her hubby, telling O’Brien, “Who’s gonna tell him if not me?” Welp, enjoy those nosebleed seats, Gabby!

Dwyane Wade and Gabrielle Union live an action-packed life, complete with frequent vacations to every corner of the globe, but when it comes time to relax, they like to chill with their family, which includes Wade’s three sons from previous relationships, his nephew Dahveon Morris (pictured, second from right), who they’re also raising, and their daughter, Kaavia James Union Wade, who the couple revealed to the world in November 2018. So what do two rich and successful celebs like to do during their downtime?

“One of D’s favorite things to do as a family is go to Walmart,” Union told Ocean Drive magazine. She confessed that when they’re in Miami, it’s more challenging for them to to do regular, everyday things, but when they’re in Los Angeles, all bets are off. “We really enjoy Walmart, Target, going to the grocery store. He loves to take the dogs to the car wash. He’s the guy with the Maltese at the car wash!” she said. Celebrities — they’re just like us!

Gabrielle union dating dwayne wadeDwyane Wade and Gabrielle Union – s odd marriage, gabrielle union dating dwayne wade.

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Chat with niger guys interested in nigerian chat, nigeria chat, niger dating chat

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Chat With Niger Guys interested in Nigerian Chat, Nigeria Chat, niger dating chat.

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The new celebrity couples in young k-pop who – s dating who kpopmap, kpop dating

Category: 25 year old dating 21 year old - Caronreviews.site
The New Celebrity Couples in Young K-Pop: Who – s Dating Who? Kpopmap, kpop dating.

From JunSu and HaNi to Kai and Krystal, these famously adorable couples will make your heart melt.

The New Celebrity Couples in Young K-Pop: Who’s Dating Who?

Published April 4, 2016 · Updated August 10, 2016

From JunSu and HaNi to Kai and Krystal, these famously adorable couples will make your heart melt.

Happy Kaistal’s Day! What’s the best way to celebrate? By admiring our 4 favorite celebrity couples of course! They are just too hot for words and are wonderful K-Pop couples that seem to be loving every minute of their time together. Love was still in the air in 2016. And the only thing better than a celebrity falling in love is when he or she falls in love with another celebrity. Lucky for us, 2016 is also chock-full of famous pairings. From the surprise coupling of idol star JunSu and HaNi to the secret romance between labelmates Krystal and her fellow Kai, here are the 2016 celebrity couples that took the world by storm in the first half of this year.

1. HaNi (EXID) x JunSu (JYJ)

JunSu fell in love with and sought HaNi after seeing her tomboyish personality, and the couple has been dating for ten months. According to Dispatch, HaNi in her school days was a fan of TVXQ, and the boy group in which JunSu was a member inspired her to become a K-Pop star. JunSu and HaNi’s agencies confirmed the relationship quickly after the news.

2. Krystal (f(x)) x Kai (EXO)

Kai from EXO and Krystal from f(x) have confirmed their relationship after rumors of secret dates, saying they became lovers after being ‘close friends.’ These two are label-mates, housed under SM Entertainment, and both were born in 1994. They have known each other for about 10 years, having met in 2007 as trainees, and their romantic relationship reportedly began this spring.

The celebrity couple rumors also are always sniffing around them. While it’s mostly gossip, there are certain romance “news” items that, in our heart of hearts, we’re dying to be true. Here’re rumored celebrity couples we *Hope* are real.

3. SoHee x Kim SooHyun

After rumors began swirling online that the hallyu stars had been in dating for a year, their entertainment company, KeyEast, quickly told the media the truth. “We have confirmed with [Kim Soo Hyun and Ahn So Hee] and the news is not true. They know each other, but they are not dating,” the rep from KeyEast explained.

4. Song HyeKyo x Song JoongKi

Are actors Song JoongKi and Song HyeKyo, who have been starring in “Descendants of the Sun,” a couple? Some netizens have raised the possibility because the two have worn very similar bracelets in different scenes. Plus, fans have witnessed Song HyeKyo and Song JoongKi having dinner in New York City. But both sides denied that the two were dating.

Kpop datingThe New Celebrity Couples in Young K-Pop: Who – s Dating Who? Kpopmap, kpop dating.

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Lu-hf dating the lu-hf isotope system, springerlink, hf dating

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Lu-Hf Dating: The Lu-Hf Isotope System, SpringerLink, hf dating.

Atomic weight Lu

The radiogenic isotope applications of the Lu-Hf system utilize variations in 176 Hf resulting from the radioactive decay of 176 Lu to 176 Hf and variations in the Lu/Hf ratios in rocks and minerals. It is used both in geochronology, primarily in rocks containing a high Lu/Hf phase, and in tracer isotopic applications, to track the chemical evolution of the Earth and other solar system materials and to constrain the sources of magmas and sediments.

The Lu-Hf isotope system, with applications to geo- and cosmochemistry, was first investigated in the early 1980s (Patchett 1983b ; Patchett and Tatsumoto 1980 a, b , c , 1981 ) following the successful implementation of the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systems several years earlier.

There are some obvious similarities between the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systems and, as a result, they have long been used in concert in a w >1993 ; Blichert-Toft and Albarède 1997 ; Johnson and Beard 1993 ; Patchett and Chauvel 1984 ; Patchett 1983b ; Salters and Hart 1991 ; Vervoort and Blichert-Toft 1999 ; Vervoort et al. 1999 ). In these two systems all elements are lithophile and refractory with high condensation temperatures. Because of these characteristics it has long been assumed that their abundances in the Earth can be approximated by chondritic meteorites (see discussion below). In addition, all elements in these systems behave incompatibly during melting and are concentrated in the melt over the residual solid. In both systems, the daughter element (e.g., Nd, Hf) is more incompatible than the parent, leading to lower Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios in the melt than the residual solid. As a result, the 143 Nd/ 144 Nd and 176 Hf/ 177 Hf ratios in magmatic rocks are highly correlated (e.g., Chauvel et al. 2008 ; Johnson and Beard 1993 ; Patchett 1983a ; Salters and Hart 1991 ; Vervoort and Blichert-Toft 1999 ). Both Lu and Hf are highly immobile and insoluble and, as is the case with the Sm-Nd system, are thought to be resistant to perturbations and retain their isotopic information through significant degrees of alteration and metamorphism.

In the case of the Lu-Hf isotope system, the parent is the heaviest of the rare-earth elements (REEs) and has broad geochemical similarities with all other +3 valence REEs. The daughter element, however, is not an REE, but a high-field-strength element (HFSE) with a +4 valence and, as such, can behave much differently than the REEs. These differences can confer some advantages to the Lu-Hf isotope system for both geochronology and tracer isotopic work as will be discussed below.

Although the Lu/Hf ratio is fractionated during magmatic processes, the degree of this fractionation, as is the case for Sm-Nd, is not very large. This results in small variations in Lu/Hf ratios between not only rocks within a comagmatic suite but also for most mineral phases within individual rocks. This lack of parent/daughter variation severely limits the application of the Lu-Hf chronometer, much as it does for the Sm-Nd isotope system. Therefore, whole-rock Lu/Hf isochrons of truly comagmatic suites of rocks either have too limited variation in Lu/Hf ratios to provide precise ages or, if there is a significant Lu/Hf variation, chances are the suite of rocks used in creating the isochron was not truly comagmatic. There are a few phases, however, with high affinity for Lu, which make them highly useful in geochronology in both magmatic (e.g., apatite) and metamorphic (e.g., garnet, lawsonite) rocks. In addition, some other phases (particularly phases with Zr or Ti as stoichiometric constituents) have strong affinities for Hf (e.g., zircon, baddeleyite, rutile), which make them useful in tracer isotopic studies – especially when used in conjunction with the U-Pb geochronologic information from these mineral phases.

Although the Lu-Hf system was introduced to the geochemical and cosmochemical communities in the 1980s, analytical challenges limited the w >2003 ), which prevented easy and routine analysis of Hf isotopes using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). As a result there were only a few practitioners using this system in the 1980s and much of the 1990s. These difficult analyses utilized specialized techniques and required cons >1997 ; Walder and Freedman 1992 ). This revolutionized the use of the Lu-Hf isotope system for geochronology and tracer isotope applications by allowing the routine analysis not only of Hf isotopes in general but also of much smaller amounts of Hf. This made several important things possible. First, it allowed for the more precise and accurate determination of the 176 Lu decay constant (Scherer et al. 2001 ; Söderlund et al. 2004 ). Second, the new MC-ICPMS instrumentation also facilitated the analysis of high Lu-Hf, but Hf-poor, phases like garnet or apatite, which made the use of these phases for geochronology possible. Third, it also made it possible to analyze Hf-poor rocks such as chondritic meteorites, which allowed more accurate constraints to be placed on the chondritic Lu-Hf value (e.g., Bouvier et al. 2008 ). Finally, MC-ICPMS technology has made it possible to determine the Lu-Hf isotope composition in very small, Hf-rich phases such as zircon. This latter application, particularly when done in conjunction with U-Pb geochronology, has enjoyed an explosion of use in recent years (e.g., Amelin et al. 2000 ; Fisher et al. 2014 ; Gerdes and Zeh 2009 ; Kemp et al. 2010 ; Woodhead et al. 2004 ; Xie et al. 2008 ; Yuan et al. 2008 ).

Isotopic composition of Lu and Hf

Ratio to 176 Lu

Atomic weight Lu

Ratio to 177 Hf

Atomic weight Hf

Hafnium is the next higher element from Lu on the periodic table (Z = 72) and is a high-field-strength element (HFSE) sharing geochemical similarities with other Group IVB elements, most notably Zr and Ti. It is relatively under-abundant in the Earth (0.28 ppm, McDonough and Sun 1995 ) but enriched in the continental crust (5.3 ppm, Rudnick and Gao 2003 ). It has six isotopes, five of which are stable (Table 1 ). One isotope, 176 Hf (5.20 %), is radiogenic and produced, in part, by beta decay of 176 Lu and, together with 176 Lu, provides the basis of the Lu-Hf chronometer. By convention the reference stable isotope for the Lu-Hf system is 177 Hf (18.60 %).

In order to determine accurate Lu and Hf concentrations and, most importantly, the precise 176 Lu/ 177 Hf ratios required for geochronology and calculating accurate initial ratios, the “isotopic dilution” technique is required. This technique involves the addition of measured amounts of tracers of known isotopic composition (highly enriched in 176 Lu and 180 Hf, typically, with some labs using 178 Hf). These tracers, or “spikes,” are generally mixed and precisely calibrated so that evaporative loss will not affect the precise determination of the parent/daughter ratios. These spikes are added to the sample solution following or during dissolution, equilibrated with the solution, and become part of the isotopic mixture of the sample. Ultimately the 176 Lu/ 177 Hf and 180 Hf/ 177 Hf ratios of the samples are measured to determine Lu and Hf concentrations and precise Lu/Hf ratios.

In order to correct for mass dependent fractionation during mass spectrometry (i.e., mass bias), the convention for the Hf isotope system is to normalize to 179 Hf/ 177 Hf = 0.7325 (Patchett and Tatsumoto 1980b ), the value that has been used since the early days of Hf isotope analyses. Mass bias for Lu isotopic analyses is complicated by virtue of the fact that Lu has only two isotopes, making internal normalization impossible. In the early TIMS era of Lu-Hf isotope measurements, the small degree of mass bias (

0.1 % per amu) was not as significant for the less stringent requirements of the Lu isotope dilution analysis. With the advent of the MC-ICPMS analyses, however, mass fractionation that is over an order of magnitude larger than TIMS necessitated an accurate mass bias correction. The current approach is to use a different element with at least one invariant isotope ratio and which has a similar mass bias response, such as Yb, to correct for mass bias in the Lu isotopic measurement. Because of the similarity of behavior of the REEs (particularly for adjacent REEs), it is often difficult to quantitatively remove Yb from Lu. The current practice employed in most labs is to remove the majority of the Yb (recall that Yb is an even element and so is much more abundant than the odd numbered Lu) and use the Yb isotope measurements to determine the mass bias and then apply this to the Lu measurement. This approach is somewhat complicated by the uncertain isotopic composition of Yb (e.g., Amelin and Davis 2005 ; Chu et al. 2002 ; Segal et al. 2003 ; Vervoort et al. 2004 ) and the fact that 176 Yb is a relatively abundant isotope (12.70 %) with the same mass as the 176 Lu spike. The interference of 176 Yb on the spike isotope, 176 Lu, requires that most of the Yb be removed from the sample. In detail there are probably small differences in the mass bias of Yb and Lu, and there are approaches to quantify these differences (e.g., White et al. 2000 ). Despite all of these challenges, 176 Lu/ 177 Hf ratios in rock samples can probably be determined to

0.2 % accuracy (Vervoort et al. 2004 ).

The Hf solution standard employed throughout the history of Hf isotope analysis has been JMC-475, a Hf metal obtained from Johnson Matthey Corporation (Patchett and Tatsumoto 1980b ) with a currently accepted 176 Hf/ 177 Hf value of 0.282160 (Vervoort and Blichert-Toft 1999 ). The JMC-475 Hf standard solution is available from the author on request.

1 %) of 176 Hf in rocks and minerals is radiogenic and produced in this way; the majority of 176 Hf is “common” Hf, produced primarily during nucleosynthesis. The radiogenic decay equation for the Lu-Hf isotope system describes how radiogenic 176 Hf in a rock or mineral will evolve over time:

Therefore, the material with high Lu/Hf ratios, such as garnet, will generate proportionally more 176 Hf over time and evolve to higher 176 Hf/ 177 Hf ratios. Conversely, the material with low Lu/Hf ratios, such as zircon, will produce proportionally little 176 Hf with time and so its 176 Hf/ 177 Hf ratios will increase only very slowly.

An important part of using these radiogenic equations for geochronology and for determining precise initial isotopic compositions is not only measuring the present-day ratios accurately but also knowing the decay constant precisely and accurately. The 176 Lu decay constant has been a source of uncertainty, however, and this has limited the full application of the Lu-Hf isotope system. The first determination of the 176 Lu decay constant for use in geochemistry and cosmochemistry was performed by Patchett and Tatsumoto ( 1980a ) who determined an isochron on a collection of basaltic and cumulate eucrite meteorites. Using a presumed age of 4.55 Ga for the differentiation event for the eucrites, they determined a value for λ 176 Lu of 1.962 ± 0.081 * 10 −11 year −1 with a corresponding half-life of 35.3 Ga. This value was later revised by Patchett ( 1983b ) to λ 176 Lu = 1.94 ± 0.07 * 10 − 11 year − 1 and a half-life of 35.7 ± 1.4 Ga. This revised value was similar to a decay constant value of 1.93 ± 0.03 * 10 −11 year −1 determined by physical counting experiments (Sguigna et al. 1982 ). The agreement between these results led, in part, to the use of the λ 176 Lu value of 1.94 ± 0.07 * 10 −11 year −1 throughout the 1980s and much of the 1990s, with later studies (e.g., Blichert-Toft and Albarède 1997 and subsequent papers) using the Sguigna et al.’s ( 1982 ) values. This early history of 176 Lu decay constant determinations is reviewed more thoroughly by Begemann et al. ( 2001 ).

The value determined for λ 176 Lu changed dramatically following age comparison studies by Scherer et al. ( 2001 ) and Söderlund et al. ( 2004 ). Scherer et al. ( 2001 ) suggested a λ 176 Lu value of 1.865 ± 0.015 * 10 −11 year −1 based on the age comparisons of 4 samples from diverse localities and with different ages. This included two pegmatites from Norway with ages

1.1 and 0.9 Ga, an apatite-xenotime bearing gneiss from New York State with an age of

1.0 Ga, and a carbonatite from South Africa with an age of

2.1 Ga. The U-Pb crystallization ages for these samples were based on the measurements of gadolinite, xenotime, baddeleyite, and apatite in these rocks; the Lu-Hf isochron was determined using the high Lu/Hf ratios of gadolinite, xenotime, and apatite combined with low Lu/Hf phases in the rock (baddeleyite, zircon, biotite) or the whole-rock compositions.

In a similar study, Söderlund et al. ( 2004 ) determined a λ 176 Lu value of 1.867 ± 0.008 * 10 −11 year −1 based on age comparisons using two Proterozoic dolerite dikes from Sweden. The ages of these rocks were determined using baddeleyite U-Pb geochronology; apatite was the high Lu/Hf phase prov >2003 ) agreed with the slightly faster decay of Söderlund et al.’s ( 2004 ) value. As a result of this agreement, the isotopic community is now using the λ 176 Lu value of 1.867 ± 0.008 * 10 −11 year −1 . The half-life corresponding to this value is 37.12 Ga. The revision in the value for the 176 Lu decay constant from the Patchett ( 1983b ) and Sguigna et al.’s ( 1982 ) values has two important consequences for Lu-Hf geochronology and isotope geochemistry. The first, and most obvious of these, is the change in calculated Lu-Hf ages. Using the Scherer/Söderlund decay constant results in ages that are 4 % older than ages determined with the Patchett/Sguigna value. The second consequence is that this lowers the calculated initial 176 Hf/ 177 Hf of rocks. The degree of this effect is a function of age but also of the 176 Lu/ 177 Hf ratios. For Archean and older samples, the lowering of the calculated initial 176 Hf/ 177 Hf for the Earth’s oldest rocks has very significant implications for the record of the Hf isotope evolution of the Earth (e.g., Scherer et al. 2001 , 2007 ).

Although the Söderlund/Scherer decay constant determinations, which used terrestrial samples in their age comparisons, have converged on a well constrained value of 1.867 ± 0.008 * 10 −11 year −1 , age comparison determinations based on meteorites continue to yield a faster 176 Lu decay rate. Blichert-Toft et al. ( 2002 ) reanalyzed a suite of basaltic and cumulate eucrites and concluded that their regression was consistent with the 1.93 ± 0.03 * 10 −11 year −1 value of Sguigna et al. ( 1982 ) and not the slower decay rates determined from terrestrial age comparisons. As was true with the earlier work of Patchett and Tatsumoto ( 1980a ), however, the basaltic and cumulate eucrites plot at opposite ends of the isochron with the basaltic eucrites at the low Lu-Hf end and the cumulate eucrites at the high Lu-Hf end, which may indicate these are not truly cogenetic. Further, these samples appear to have different formation ages with the cumulate eucrites arguably younger (Mittlefehldt et al. 1998 ). In another study using meteorite age comparison, Bizzarro et al. ( 2003 ) determined a λ 176 Lu value of 1.983 ± 0.033 * 10 −11 year −1 , even faster than the Patchett/Sguigna values. The Bizzarro et al. ( 2003 ) study included analyses of ordinary chondrites, carbonaceous chondrites, and basaltic eucrites and used a common age of 4.56 Ga. As was true with the eucrite-based determination, this study included a diverse suite of meteorites of potentially different ages and metamorphic histories, and therefore, the decay constant determination may be affected in some way by the use of samples that do not strictly meet the requirements for an isochron. These caveats notwithstanding, there are indications that meteorite isochrons yield a faster decay constant. One possible explanation for this apparent difference between the terrestrial and meteorite determinations is the presence of excess 176 Hf in meteorites. This may have been produced by excitation of the long-lived radioactive isotope 176 Lu to a short-lived 176 Lu isomer early in the history of the solar system that then decays quickly to 176 Hf, thereby producing the excess 176 Hf (Albarède et al. 2006 ; Thrane et al. 2010 ). The exact mechanism of how this might have occurred is still a matter of debate (Albarède et al. 2006 ; Thrane et al. 2010 ).

All Lu-Hf geochronology uses the “isochron” method to determine absolute ages. Unlike some chronometers such as U-Pb in zircon where there is little, if any, daughter isotope at the time of mineral growth, in the Lu-Hf system, there is invariably an abundance of daughter isotopes present (i.e., “common Hf”). For this reason, it is not possible to determine the age of a single mineral sample by measuring the accumulation of daughter isotopes in the sample. Thus all Lu-Hf geochronometry relies on the isochron approach, which utilizes coexisting rocks and minerals to determine an age. Important assumptions in this approach include the following: (1) All the minerals formed at the same time (i.e., have the same age); (2) all samples are cogenetic (have the same isotopic composition at the time of formation); and (3) the sample being dated has been a closed system since the time of mineral growth.

The isochron method applied to garnet Lu-Hf geochronology. ( 1) uniform Hf isotopic composition at time t = 0; ( 2) phases in rock acquire different Lu/Hf ratios (garnets with high Lu/Hf), but all with the same 176 Hf/ 177 Hf; ( 3) Hf isotopic compositions of the different components evolve with time as a function of their Lu/Hf ratios; ( 4) if the rock has remained a closed system with respect to Lu and Hf, all components will plot along a line (isochron) that is a function of time

In detail, many of the assumptions of the garnet isochron method are not strictly met. In most cases the rock is certainly not in perfect isotopic equilibrium (i.e., homogeneous 176 Hf/ 177 Hf) prior to metamorphism. In addition, the time different phases in the rock form may not be precisely the same, especially in the case of prolonged garnet growth (e.g., Kohn 2009 ). These can be serious obstacles if there is a small range of Lu/Hf and 176 Hf/ 177 Hf variations in samples but are often overcome in isochrons with high Lu/Hf phases and large amounts of radiogenic Hf ingrowth.

Because of the limited fractionation in Lu/Hf that occurs during magmatic processes, there is rarely a sufficiently large range in Lu/Hf ratios in suites of rocks that are truly cogenetic to generate an isochron with enough precision to be useful (Patchett 1983b ). If there is a large variation in Lu/Hf in a suite of samples, it is likely these samples are probably not strictly cogenetic. Examples of the former may be represented by the eucrite isochrons combining both basaltic and cumulate eucrites (Blichert-Toft et al. 2002 ; Patchett 1983b ) and in the collective chondrite-eucrite isochron of Bizzarro et al. ( 2003 ). In practice, therefore, Lu-Hf whole-rock isochrons are rarely employed for geochronology, especially for terrestrial samples.

There is potential in some magmatic rocks, however, to crystallize a high Lu/Hf phase (e.g., apatite, magmatic garnet) that can then be used in geochronology. The magmatic rocks that have the most promise for useful geochronometry are those that contain apatite as a crystallizing phase. As demonstrated by the decay constant work of Scherer et al. ( 2001 ) and Söderlund et al. ( 2004 ) and the pioneering work applying Lu-Hf geochronology to phosphates by Barfod et al. ( 2003 ), apatite generally has very high Lu/Hf ratios and can be used in generating meaningful isochrons. In addition, these phases are likely in isotopic equilibrium with the magma at the time of their formation and likely formed at the same time as the other phases in the rock. Furthermore, apatite can occur in mafic rocks that generally lack zircon and that may not contain baddeleyite. The potential of Lu-Hf apatite geochronology for providing important geochronologic information for some rocks that are notoriously difficult to date is high, and this should be a growth area in the future.

The most successful geochronologic application of the Lu-Hf system has been garnet geochronology. This technique shares the same principles as Sm-Nd garnet geochronology in that it utilizes garnet’s generally high affinity for HREEs which results in elevated Sm/Nd ratios and (generally higher) Lu/Hf ratios in the garnets as they grow. The potential of the garnet Lu-Hf technique was first demonstrated by a number of papers in the late 1990s (Blichert-Toft et al. 1999 ; Duchene et al. 1997 ; Scherer et al. 1997 ). Following this early proof-of-concept work, there have been a large number of studies in a w >2004 ; Bird et al. 2013 ; Cheng et al. 2008 ; Herwartz et al. 2011 ; Kelly et al. 2011 ; Scherer et al. 2000 ; Smit et al. 2013 ; Wells et al. 2012 ; Zirakparvar et al. 2010 ). Reliable garnet Lu-Hf ages have been reported for rocks as old as Archean (e.g., Smit et al. 2013 ) and as young as Miocene (e.g., Zirakparvar et al. 2011 ) and everything in between.

Although there are many parallels between Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology, there are important differences between these two systems. First, the decay rate of the parent isotope in the Lu-Hf system, 176 Lu, is

3 times faster than 147 Sm in the Sm-Nd system. This results in a higher rate of ingrowth in the radiogenic daughter, 176 Hf, compared to 143 Nd. Second, owing to the different geochemical behavior between a REE and a HFSE, there is generally more fractionation in the Lu/Hf ratios compared to Sm/Nd, which is especially manifest in phases like garnet and apatite.

Melt-solid partition coefficients for Lu and Hf in various minerals

Hf datingLu-Hf Dating: The Lu-Hf Isotope System, SpringerLink, hf dating.


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